Preventive vs. Predictive Maintenance: The Benefits and Challenges of Both Approaches
Maintenance is an integral component of operating manufacturing equipment.
You probably have some type of maintenance plan in place already, and it’s likely a preventive approach. Preventive or predictive maintenance is how most companies do industrial maintenance – and both are vastly superior to the third alternative — reactive maintenance, which essentially is addressing a piece of machinery only after it breaks down. While the planned downtime in preventive maintenance may be inconvenient and represents a decrease in overall capacity availability, it’s highly preferable to the unplanned downtime of reactive maintenance, where costs and duration may be unknown until the problem is diagnosed and addressed.
Below, we’ll look at the differences between preventive and predictive maintenance, and explore the benefits and challenges you should consider when choosing between them. First, let’s set a baseline definition for each of these:
You’re most likely familiar with preventive maintenance (PM). The theory behind preventive maintenance is to take regular steps to prevent problems before they occur. Preventive maintenance has several characteristics:
- Is planned at regular intervals
- Requires machine downtime to carry out
- Often consists of a checklist including equipment and component inspection, calibration, cleaning, repair and replacement
- May occur at different intervals — your facility may have a daily regimen of machine cleaning and inspection at the beginning and end of shifts cycles and may also have more comprehensive semiannual/annual checks
- Occurs even if identifiable issues are present
Essentially, preventive maintenance is a collection of best practices and averages that zeroes in on an identified interval that gives you the best odds of catching issues before they start. It continues to be practiced because it is highly effective for many organizations.
Predictive maintenance (PdM) is a growing field with options for connectivity and data collection continuing to be developed. In fact, the McKinsey Global Institute reports that implementation of PdM practices across manufacturing will have a $240-$627 billion cost savings across on the industry. Like preventive maintenance, it is a proactive approach. The main difference in predictive maintenance is that it utilizes condition-monitoring equipment to assess the performance of assets through a more real-time, data-driven approach, therefore, identifying the potential for issues before they occur.
While preventive maintenance relies on best practices and historical data, predictive maintenance takes measurements from machine operations as they are occurring and uses this data to raise red flags when indications of a problem are noted. In summary, predictive maintenance:
- Is proactive
- Can be performed as the machines are running in their normal production modes
- Identifies and addresses potential problems, allowing maintenance to occur before a failure happens
- Relies on interconnected measurement and data collection systems as well as tools and personnel to analyze that data
Predictive vs. Preventive Maintenance
There are key benefits and challenges presented by each type of maintenance, based on the qualities previously identified. Note that with two proactive approaches, some of the benefits will overlap.
- Limits unplanned downtime
- Increases equipment lifespan
- Is efficient, especially with experienced personnel
- May be addressing problems that don’t exist — maintenance occurs regardless of identified issues
- Requires more extensive inventory management for replacement components
- Increases planned downtime
- Identifies actual issues early on so that they can be addressed
- Shorter downtime
- Improved inventory efficiency — parts are not run to failure, but are also not replaced while still usable
- Presents extensive options for maintenance practices based on real-time analytics
- More complex than preventive maintenance
- Not as scheduled as preventive maintenance — downtime may still be considered unplanned though it is shorter, more efficient downtime
- May require new equipment and technology infrastructure in order to collect and share data with a centralized system
- May require additional personnel or training of existing personnel
Are you in the process of determining which maintenance strategy is right for your manufacturing facility? If so, use the definitions and analysis above help you weigh the pros and cons of each maintenance practice. Typically, the most efficient answer is some combination of both.
Looking for furthered assistance to determine which maintenance approach makes sense for your plant? Contact us today to find out how we can help.